A Multireader Exploratory Evaluation of Individual Pulse Sequence Cancer Detection on Prostate Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To determine independent contribution of each prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) sequence to cancer detection when read in isolation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostate mpMRI at 3-Tesla with endorectal coil from 45 patients (n = 30 prostatectomy cases, n = 15 controls with negative magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or biopsy) were retrospectively interpreted. Sequences (T2-weighted [T2W] MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], and dynamic contrast-enhanced [DCE] MRI; N = 135) were separately distributed to three radiologists at different institutions. Readers evaluated each sequence blinded to other mpMRI sequences. Findings were correlated to whole-mount pathology. Cancer detection sensitivity, positive predictive value for whole prostate (WP), transition zone, and peripheral zone were evaluated per sequence by reader, with reader concordance measured by index of specific agreement. Cancer detection rates (CDRs) were calculated for combinations of independently read sequences. RESULTS: 44 patients were evaluable (cases median prostate-specific antigen 6.83 [ range 1.95-51.13] ng/mL, age 62 [45-71] years; controls prostate-specific antigen 6.85 [2.4-10.87] ng/mL, age 65.5 [47-71] years). Readers had highest sensitivity on DWI (59%) vs T2W MRI (48%) and DCE (23%) in WP. DWI-only positivity (DWI+/T2W-/DCE-) achieved highest CDR in WP (38%), compared to T2W-only (CDR 24%) and DCE-only (CDR 8%). DWI+/T2W+/DCE- achieved CDR 80%, an added benefit of 56.4% from T2W-only and of 42% from DWI-only (P < .0001). All three sequences interpreted independently positive gave highest CDR of 90%. Reader agreement was moderate (index of specific agreement: T2W = 54%, DWI = 58%, DCE = 33%). CONCLUSIONS: When prostate mpMRI sequences are interpreted independently by multiple observers, DWI achieves highest sensitivity and CDR in transition zone and peripheral zone. T2W and DCE MRI both add value to detection; mpMRI achieves highest detection sensitivity when all three mpMRI sequences are positive.
Gaur, S; Harmon, S; Gupta, RT; Margolis, DJ; Lay, N; Mehralivand, S; Merino, MJ; Wood, BJ; Pinto, PA; Shih, JH; Choyke, PL; Turkbey, B
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