Measurements of the Relationship Between CT Hounsfield Units and Acoustic Velocity and How It Changes With Photon Energy and Reconstruction Method.
Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound continues to gain traction as a noninvasive treatment option for a variety of pathologies. Focusing ultrasound through the skull can be accomplished by adding a phase correction to each element of a hemispherical transducer array. The phase corrections are determined with acoustic simulations that rely on speed of sound estimates derived from CT scans. While several studies have investigated the relationship between acoustic velocity and CT Hounsfield units (HUs), these studies have largely ignored the impact of X-ray energy, reconstruction method, and reconstruction kernel on the measured HU, and therefore the estimated velocity, and none have measured the relationship directly. In this paper, 91 ex vivo human skull fragments from two skulls are imaged by 80 CT scans with a variety of energies and reconstruction methods. The average HU from each fragment is found for each scan and correlated with the speed of sound measured using a through transmission technique in that fragment. As measured by the -squared value, the results show that CT is able to account for 23%-53% of the variation in velocity in the human skull. Both the X-ray energy and the reconstruction technique significantly alter the -squared value and the linear relationship between HU and speed of sound in bone. Accounting for these variations will lead to more accurate phase corrections and more efficient transmission of acoustic energy through the skull.
Webb, TD; Leung, SA; Rosenberg, J; Ghanouni, P; Dahl, JJ; Pelc, NJ; Pauly, KB
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)