The Impact of Stigma on Community Reintegration of Veterans With Traumatic Brain Injury and the Well-Being of Their Caregivers.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between perceived stigma and discrimination and caregiver strain, caregiver well-being, and patient community reintegration. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey study of 564 informal caregivers of U.S. military service veterans of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan who experienced traumatic brain injuries or polytrauma (TBI/PT). SETTING: Care settings of community-dwelling former inpatients of U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers. PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers of former inpatients (N=564), identified through next-of-kin records and subsequent nominations. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Caregiver strain, depression, anxiety, loneliness, and self-esteem; as well as care recipient community reintegration, a key aspect of TBI/PT rehabilitation. RESULTS: Family stigma was associated with strain, depression, anxiety, loneliness, lower self-esteem, and less community reintegration. Caregiver stigma-by-association was associated with strain, depression, anxiety, loneliness, and lower self-esteem. Care recipient stigma was associated with caregiver strain, depression, anxiety, loneliness, lower self-esteem, and less community reintegration. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stigma may be a substantial source of stress for caregivers of U.S. military veterans with TBI/PT, and may contribute to poor outcomes for the health of caregivers and for the community reintegration of the veterans for whom they provide care.
Phelan, SM; Bangerter, LR; Friedemann-Sanchez, G; Lackore, KA; Morris, MA; Van Houtven, CH; Carlson, KF; van Ryn, M; Harden, KJ; Griffin, JM
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