Mast cells contribute to Enterovirus 71 infection-induced pulmonary edema in neonatal mice.
Enterovirus (EV) 71 infection has been widely acknowledged as the leading cause of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which may rapidly lead to fatal pulmonary edema. In this study, we established a mouse model for EV71 infection exhibiting high incidence of severe symptoms with pulmonary edema. Mast cells (MCs) accumulation, activation and allergic inflammation were found in the brains, lungs and skeletal muscle of mice after EV71 infection, especially in the lungs of mice. Levels of histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) and noradrenaline (NA) were increased in EV71-infected lungs. In addition, EV71 infection reduced the number of pulmonary T cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes, and increased the number of lung eosinophils, Tregs and MCs. MCs number and tryptase expression in target organs or tissues posed a trend towards an increase from control to severe mice. There were positive correlations between MCs number in the brains (r = 0.701, P = 0.003), lungs (r = 0.802, P < 0.0001), skeletal muscles (r = 0.737, P = 0.001) and mean clinical score. Thus, our results suggested that MCs contributed to the pulmonary edema during EV71 infection.
Jin, Y; Zhang, C; Wang, H; Zhou, G; Wang, X; Zhang, R; Chen, S; Ren, J; Chen, L; Dang, D; Zhang, P; Xi, Y; Wu, W; Zhang, W; Duan, G
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