A Versatile Thin-Film Deposition Method for Multidimensional Semiconducting Bismuth Halides
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society. Despite the significant progress in fabricating hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells, their toxicity and low stability remain as major drawbacks, thereby hindering large-scale commercialization. Given the isoelectronic nature of lead(II) and bismuth(III) ions, potentially stable and nontoxic alternatives for efficient light absorption in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices may be found among bismuth-based halide semiconductors. However, high-quality polycrystalline films of many of these systems have not been demonstrated. Here we present a versatile and facile two-step coevaporation approach to fabricate A 3 Bi 2 I 9 (A = Cs, Rb) and AgBi 2 I 7 polycrystalline films with smooth, pinhole-free morphology and average grain size of >200 nm. The process involves an initial two-source evaporation step (involving CsI, RbI or AgI, and BiI 3 sources), followed by an annealing step under BiI 3 vapor. The structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of the resulting thin films are studied by X-ray diffraction, optical spectroscopy, X-ray/UV photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.
Khazaee, M; Sardashti, K; Sun, JP; Zhou, H; Clegg, C; Hill, IG; Jones, JL; Lupascu, DC; Mitzi, DB
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