Effects of aerobic training with and without weight loss on insulin sensitivity and lipids.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of exercise training with modest or greater weight loss (≥3%) or not (<3%) on insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein concentrations, and lipoprotein particle size in overweight and obese participants. METHODS: Adults (N = 163, body mass index: 25-37 [kg/m2]) participated in 8 months of exercise training. Insulin sensitivity, lipid concentrations, lipid particle size and other cardiometabolic variables were measured at baseline and follow-up. Participants were categorized by whether they achieved at least modest weight loss (≥ 3%) or not (<3%) following the intervention. RESULTS: A greater improvement in insulin sensitivity was observed in adults performing exercise training with at least modest weight loss (2.2 mU·l-1 ·min -1, CI: 1.5 to 2.8) compared to those who did not (0.8 mU·l-1 ·min -1, CI: 0.5 to 1.2). Similar results were observed for acute insulin response, triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol concentration, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size and high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size (p<0.05), when all exercise groups were combined. No significant results across weight loss categories were observed for LDL, HDL, glucose, or insulin levels. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that aerobic exercise combined with at least modest weight loss leads to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity, triglycerides as well as other non-traditional lipid risk factors (non-HDL cholesterol, HDL/LDL particle size). Clinicians should advocate patients who are overweight/obese to exercise and obtain modest weight loss for improved cardiovascular benefits.
Swift, DL; Houmard, JA; Slentz, CA; Kraus, WE
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