Associations between sleep duration, sleep quality and diabetic retinopathy.
BACKGROUND: Abnormal durations of sleep have been associated with risk of diabetes. However, it is not clear if sleep duration is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we included 1,231 (Malay, n = 395; Indian, n = 836) adults (mean age 64.4 ± 9.0 years, 50.4% female) with diabetes from the second visit of two independent population-based cohort studies (2011-15) in Singapore. Self-reported habitual sleep duration was categorized as short (<6 h), normal (6≤ h <8), and long (≥8 h). Questionnaires were administered to detect risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia, all of which may indicate poor quality of sleep. The associations between sleep-related characteristics with moderate DR and vision-threatening DR (VTDR) were analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Prevalence of moderate DR and VTDR in the study population were 10.5% and 6.3% respectively. The mean duration of sleep was 6.4 ± 1.5 h. Compared to normal sleep duration, both short and long sleep durations were associated with moderate DR with multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.73 (1.03-2.89) and 2.17 (1.28-3.66) respectively. Long sleep duration (2.37 [1.16-4.89]), high risk of OSA (2.24 [1.09-4.75]), and excessive daytime sleepiness (3.27 [1.02-10.30]) were separately associated with VTDR. CONCLUSION: Sleep duration had a U-shaped association with moderate DR; long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness and high risk of OSA were positively associated with VTDR.
Tan, NYQ; Chew, M; Tham, Y-C; Nguyen, QD; Yasuda, M; Cheng, C-Y; Wong, TY; Sabanayagam, C
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