An Empirical Dietary Inflammatory Pattern Score Is Associated with Circulating Inflammatory Biomarkers in a Multi-Ethnic Population of Postmenopausal Women in the United States.
BACKGROUND:The empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score has been associated with concentrations of circulating inflammatory biomarkers in European Americans. OBJECTIVE:We used the EDIP score, a weighted sum of 18 food groups that characterizes dietary inflammatory potential based on circulating concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers, to test the hypothesis that a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern is associated with inflammatory biomarker concentrations in a US multi-ethnic population. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, we calculated EDIP scores using baseline food frequency questionnaire data from 31,472 women, aged 50-79 y, in the Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trials. Circulating biomarkers outcomes at baseline were: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 and 2, and adiponectin. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses to estimate absolute concentrations and relative differences in biomarker concentrations, overall and in subgroups of race/ethnicity and BMI (body mass index) categories. RESULTS:Independent of energy intake, BMI, physical activity, and other potential confounding variables, higher EDIP scores were significantly associated with higher (lower for adiponectin) absolute concentrations of all 6 biomarkers. On the relative scale, the percentage of difference in the concentration of biomarkers, among women in the highest compared to the lowest EDIP quintile, was: CRP, +13% (P-trend < 0.0001); IL-6, +15% (P-trend < 0.0001); TNF-α, +7% (P-trend = 0.0007); TNFR1, +4% (P-trend = 0.0009); TNFR2, +5% (P-trend < 0.0001); and adiponectin, -13% (P-trend <0.0001). These associations differed by racial/ethnic groups and by BMI categories. Whereas the absolute biomarker concentrations were lower among European-American women and among normal-weight women, the associations with diet were stronger than among women of African-American or Hispanic/Latino origin and among overweight and obese women. CONCLUSIONS:Findings demonstrate the successful replication of an empirical hypothesis-oriented a posteriori dietary pattern score in a multi-ethnic population of postmenopausal women, with subgroup differences by race/ethnicity and body weight. Future research needs to apply the score in non-US populations.
Tabung, FK; Giovannucci, EL; Giulianini, F; Liang, L; Chandler, PD; Balasubramanian, R; Manson, JE; Cespedes Feliciano, EM; Hayden, KM; Van Horn, L; Rexrode, KM
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