Facial Fractures in Patients With Firearm Injuries: Profile and Outcomes.
PURPOSE: Firearm injuries (FAIs) are a major public health issue in the United States. The objective of this study was to examine characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with facial fractures attributed to FAIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample for the years 2008 to 2013 was used. All patients who visited EDs with FAIs and facial fractures were selected. The study focused on the following variables: 1) demographic characteristics, 2) types of facial fractures, 3) disposition status after ED visit or subsequent hospitalization, 4) charges (ED and hospitalization), and 5) patient outcomes. The inclusion criteria were a visit to a hospital-based ED with facial fractures and an external cause of FAI. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize findings. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the simultaneous effects of patient-related factors on ED death. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 15,469 patients (mean age, 34 years) visited hospital-based EDs with facial fractures attributed to FAIs. Most were uninsured male patients. The most common etiology of FAIs was assault. The most common facial fractures were open mandibular fractures and open maxillary and/or malar bone fractures. Approximately 27% of patients had a concomitant intracranial injury. After the ED visit, 74% were admitted. The mean ED charge per patient was $6,403, and the total ED charge across the United States was $76.48 million. The mean hospitalization charge per patient was $167,203. The total hospitalization charge across the United States was $1.9 billion. Patients with intracranial injuries (odds ratio [OR], 21.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.16 to 62.85; P < .01), uninsured patients (OR, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.44 to 12.51; P < .01), and patients residing in areas with high household incomes (OR, 5.60; 95% CI, 2.51 to 12.46; P < .01) were high-risk groups for ED death. CONCLUSIONS: FAIs require substantial resources for stabilization and treatment by EDs. This study highlights the burden and impact of facial fractures in patients with FAIs in the United States.
Abramowicz, S; Allareddy, V; Rampa, S; Lee, MK; Nalliah, RP; Allareddy, V
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