Occupational determinants of cumulative lead exposure: analysis of bone lead among men in the VA normative aging study.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


To examine the relation between occupation and cumulative lead exposure-assessed by measuring bone lead-in a community-dwelling population.


We measured bone lead concentration with K-shell X-Ray Fluorescence in 1320 men in the Normative Aging Study. We categorized job titles into 14 broad US Census Bureau categories. We used ordinary least squares regression to estimate bone lead by job categories adjusted for other predictors.


Service workers, construction, and extractive craft workers and installation, maintenance, and repair craft workers had the highest bone lead concentrations. Including occupations significantly improved the overall model (P < 0.001) and reduced by 15% to 81% the association between bone lead and education categories.


Occupation significantly predicts cumulative lead exposure in a community-dwelling population and accounts for a large proportion of the association between education and bone lead.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Ji, JS; Schwartz, J; Sparrow, D; Hu, H; Weisskopf, MG

Published Date

  • April 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 56 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 435 - 440

PubMed ID

  • 24709766

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3982188

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1536-5948

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1076-2752

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/jom.0000000000000127


  • eng