Quality of Life in Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review.

Journal Article (Systematic Review;Journal Article)


Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents approximately 75% of newly diagnosed patients with bladder cancer. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer survivors have unique chronic burdens including frequent recurrences, repeated surveillance cystoscopies and treatments, and the highest lifetime medical cost per person among all cancers.


The purpose of this study was to summarize studies assessing quality of life (QOL) in NMIBC survivors.


The literature from January 2005 to March 2017 found in PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases was reviewed systematically. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) research about NMIBC survivors, (2) outcomes included QOL, (3) original research article published in peer-reviewed journals, and (4) published in English.


A total of 15 studies were included: 14 quantitative studies and 1 mixed-methods study. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer survivors had significantly lower QOL compared with the general population, especially in fatigue, physical and role functioning, and mental health. Repeated transurethral resections and intravesical treatments were associated with impaired physical function and mental health. Most NMIBC survivors had concerns of urinary and bowel problems and sexual function.


Despite a good prognosis, NMIBC and its treatment have a significant impact on QOL in survivors. The findings showed large burdens in NMIBC survivors and suggest that further research is needed to better understand potential opportunities to improve QOL in this population.

Implications for practice

Oncology nurses are in the critical position for assessing symptoms and concerns. Oncology nurses should pay special attention to NMIBC survivors who have unique symptoms and burden with the aim of improving survivors' QOL.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Jung, A; Nielsen, ME; Crandell, JL; Palmer, MH; Bryant, AL; Smith, SK; Mayer, DK

Published Date

  • May 2019

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 42 / 3

Start / End Page

  • E21 - E33

PubMed ID

  • 29863576

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1538-9804

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0162-220X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/ncc.0000000000000606


  • eng