Low noise charge injection in the CCD22
The inclusion of a charge injection structure on a charge coupled device (CCD) allows for the mitigation of charge transfer loss which can be caused by radiation induced charge trapping defects. Any traps present in the pixels of the CCD are filled by the injected charge as it is swept through the device and consequently, the charge transfer efficiency is improved in subsequently acquired images. To date, a number of different types of CCD have been manufactured featuring a variety of charge injection techniques. The e2v Technologies CCD22, used in the EPIC MOS focal plane instruments of XMM-Newton, is one such device and is the subject of this paper. A detailed understanding of charge injection operation and the use of charge injection to mitigate charge transfer losses resulting from radiation damage to CCDs will benefit a number of space projects planned for the future, including the ESA GAIA and X-ray Evolving Universe Spectrometry (XEUS) missions. The charge injection structure and mode of operation of the CCD22 are presented, followed by a detailed analysis of the uniformity and repeatability of the charge injection amplitude across the columns of the device. The effects of proton irradiation on the charge injection characteristics are also presented, in particular the effect of radiation induced bright pixels on the injected charge level.
Smith, DR; Holland, AD; Hutchinson, I; Abbey, AF; Pool, P; Burt, D; Morris, D
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