Competition of hydrophobic peptides, cytotoxic drugs, and chemosensitizers on a common P-glycoprotein pharmacophore as revealed by its ATPase activity.
The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that the modulation of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) ATPase activity by peptides, drugs, and chemosensitizers takes place on a common drug pharmacophore. To this end, a highly emetine-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line was established, in which Pgp constituted 18% of plasma membrane protein. Reconstituted proteoliposomes, the Pgp content of which was up to 40%, displayed a basal activity of 2.6 +/- 0.45 micromol of Pi/min/mg of protein, suggesting the presence of an endogenous Pgp substrate. This basal ATPase activity was stimulated (up to 5.2 micromol of Pi/min/mg of protein) by valinomycin and various Pgp substrates, whereas, to our surprise, gramicidin D, an established Pgp substrate, was inhibitory. Taking advantage of this novel inhibition of Pgp ATPase activity by gramicidin D, a drug competition assay was devised in which gramicidin D-inhibited Pgp ATPase was coincubated with increasing concentrations of various substrates that stimulate its ATPase activity. Gramicidin D inhibition of Pgp ATPase was reversed by Pgp substrates, including various cytotoxic agents and chemosensitizers. The inhibition of the basal ATPase activity and the reversal of gramicidin D inhibition of Pgp ATPase by its various substrates conformed to classical Michaelis-Menten competition. This competition involved an endogenous substrate, the inhibitory drug gramicidin D, and a stimulatory substrate. We conclude that the various MDR type substrates and chemosensitizers compete on a common drug binding site present in Pgp.
Borgnia, MJ; Eytan, GD; Assaraf, YG
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