Limitations of closing percutaneous transthoracic ventricular access ports using a commercial collagen vascular closure device.
INTRODUCTION: Closed-chest access and closure of direct cardiac punctures may enable a range of therapeutic procedures. We evaluate the safety and feasibility of closing percutaneous direct ventricular access sites using a commercial collagen-based femoral artery closure device. METHODS: Yorkshire swine underwent percutaneous transthoracic left ventricular access (n = 13). The access port was closed using a commercial collagen-based vascular closure device (Angio-Seal, St. Jude Medical) with or without prior separation of the pericardial layers by instillation of fluid into the pericardial space ("permissive pericardial tamponade"). After initial nonsurvival feasibility experiments (n = 6); animals underwent 1-week (n = 3) or 6-week follow-up (n = 4). RESULTS: In naïve animals, the collagen plug tended to deploy outside the parietal pericardium, where it failed to accomplish hemostasis. "Permissive pericardial tamponade" was created under MRI, and accomplished early hemostasis by allowing the collagen sponge to seat on the epicardial surface inside the pericardium. After successful closure, six of seven animals accumulated a large pericardial effusion 5 ± 1 days after closure. Despite percutaneous drainage during 6-week follow-up, the large pericardial effusion recurred in half, and was lethal in one. CONCLUSIONS: A commercial collagen-based vascular closure device may achieve temporary but not durable hemostasis when closing a direct left ventricular puncture port, but only after intentional pericardial separation. These insights may contribute to development of a superior device solution. Elective clinical application of this device to close apical access ports should be avoided.
Barbash, IM; Saikus, CE; Ratnayaka, K; Faranesh, AZ; Kocaturk, O; Wu, V; Bell, JA; Schenke, WH; Raman, VK; Lederman, RJ
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