Six-Year Incidence and Risk Factors of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Singaporean Indians: The Singapore Indian Eye Study.

Published online

Journal Article

We aimed to determine the 6-year incidence and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in first and second generations of Singaporean Indians. Baseline examination was conducted in 2007-9 and 6-year propsective follow-up examination of this Indian population in 2013-5. All participants underwent interviews with questionnaires and comprehensive medical and eye examinations. Incidence was age-standardized to Singaporean 2010 census. Risk factors associated with AMD incidence were assessed and compared between first and second generations of immigrants. Among 2200 persons who participated in the follow-up examination (75.5% response rate), gradable fundus photographs were available in 2105. The 6-year age-standardized incidences of early and late AMD were 5.26% and 0.51% respectively. Incident early AMD was associated with cardiovascular disease history (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.04-2.45), underweight body mass index (BMI) (HR 3.12, 95% CI 1.37-7.14) (BMI of <18.5 vs 18.51-25 kg/m2), heavy alcohol drinking (HR 3.14 95% CI 1.25-7.89) and ARMS2 rs3750847 homozygous genetic loci carrier (HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.59-3.99). We found a relatively low incidence of early AMD in this Singaporean Indian population compared to Caucasian populations. Both first and second-generation Indian immigrants have similar incidence and risk factor patterns for early AMD.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Foo, VHX; Yanagi, Y; Nguyen, QD; Sabanayagam, C; Lim, SH; Neelam, K; Wang, JJ; Mitchell, P; Cheng, C-Y; Wong, TY; Cheung, CMG

Published Date

  • June 11, 2018

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 8 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 8869 -

PubMed ID

  • 29891972

Pubmed Central ID

  • 29891972

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2045-2322

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1038/s41598-018-27202-w


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England