Polyphasic characterization of four soil-derived phenanthrene-degrading Acidovorax strains and proposal of Acidovorax carolinensis sp. nov.
Four bacterial strains identified as members of the Acidovorax genus were isolated from two geographically distinct but similarly contaminated soils in North Carolina, USA, characterized, and their genomes sequenced. Their 16S rRNA genes were highly similar to those previously recovered during stable-isotope probing (SIP) of one of the soils with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phenanthrene. Heterotrophic growth of all strains occurred with a number of organic acids, as well as phenanthrene, but no other tested PAHs. Optimal growth occurred aerobically under mesophilic temperature, neutral pH, and low salinity conditions. Predominant fatty acids were C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c, C16:0, and C18:1ω7c, and were consistent with the genus. Genomic G+C contents ranged from 63.6 to 64.2%. A combination of whole genome comparisons and physiological analyses indicated that these four strains likely represent a single species within the Acidovorax genus. Chromosomal genes for phenanthrene degradation to phthalate were nearly identical to highly conserved regions in phenanthrene-degrading Delftia, Burkholderia, Alcaligenes, and Massilia species in regions flanked by transposable or extrachromosomal elements. The lower degradation pathway for phenanthrene metabolism was inferred by comparisons to described genes and proteins. The novel species Acidovorax carolinensis sp. nov. is proposed, comprising the four strains described in this study with strain NA3T as the type strain (=LMG 30136, =DSM 105008).
Singleton, DR; Lee, J; Dickey, AN; Stroud, A; Scholl, EH; Wright, FA; Aitken, MD
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