Modified Newcastle Disease virus as an improved vaccine vector against Simian Immunodeficiency virus.
SIV infection in macaques is a relevant animal model for HIV pathogenesis and vaccine study in humans. To design a safe and effective vaccine against HIV, we evaluated the suitability of naturally-occurring avirulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains and several modified versions of NDV as vectors for the expression and immunogenicity of SIV envelope protein gp160. All the NDV vectors expressed gp160 protein in infected cells. The gp160 expressed by these vectors formed oligomers and was incorporated into the NDV envelope. All the NDV vectors expressing gp160 were attenuated in chickens. Intranasal immunization of guinea pigs with modified NDV vectors such as rNDV-APMV-2CS/gp160 and rNDV-APMV-8CS/gp160 (NDV strain LaSota containing the cleavage site sequences of F protein of avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotype 2 and 8, respectively), and rNDV-BC-F-HN/gp160 (NDV strain BC containing LaSota F cleavage site and LaSota F and HN genes) elicited improved SIV-specific humoral and mucosal immune responses compared to other NDV vectors. These modified vectors were also efficient in inducing neutralizing antibody responses to tier 1 A SIVmac251.6 and tier 1B SIVmac251/M766 strains. This study suggests that our novel modified NDV vectors are safe and immunogenic and can be used as vaccine vector to control HIV.
Manoharan, VK; Khattar, SK; LaBranche, CC; Montefiori, DC; Samal, SK
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