Investigating pathogen burden in relation to a cumulative deficits index in a representative sample of US adults.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Pathogen burden is a construct developed to assess the cumulative effects of multiple, persistent pathogens on morbidity and mortality. Despite the likely biological wear and tear on multiple body systems caused by persistent infections, few studies have examined the impact of total pathogen burden on such outcomes and specifically on preclinical markers of dysfunction. Using data from two waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we compared three alternative methods for measuring pathogen burden, composed of mainly persistent viral infections, using a cumulative deficits index (CDI) as an outcome: single pathogen associations, a pathogen burden summary score and latent class analyses. We found significant heterogeneity in the distribution of the CDI by age, sex, race/ethnicity and education. There was an association between pathogen burden and the CDI by all three metrics. The latent class classification of pathogen burden showed particularly strong associations with the CDI; these associations remained after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, race/ethnicity and education. Our results suggest that pathogen burden may influence early clinical indicators of poor health as measured by the CDI. Our results are salient since we were able to detect these associations in a relatively young population. These findings suggest that reducing pathogen burden and the specific pathogens that drive the CDI may provide a target for preventing the early development of age-related physiological changes.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Noppert, GA; Aiello, AE; O'Rand, AM; Cohen, HJ

Published Date

  • November 2018

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 146 / 15

Start / End Page

  • 1968 - 1976

PubMed ID

  • 29898795

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC6175667

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1469-4409

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1017/S095026881800153X


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England