Analysis of relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone and cathelicidin with inflammation and cardiovascular risk in subjects with paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus: An Atherosclerosis Prevention in Paediatric Lupus Erythematosus (APPLE) study
© 2018 Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article). All rights reserved. Objectives Previous studies demonstrated associations between reduced serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), inflammation and disease activity in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE). The goal of this study was to assess parathyroid hormone (PTH) in its relationship to vitamin D and inflammation, as well as to better understand the role of human cathelicidin (LL-37) in pSLE. Methods Frozen serum samples collected at baseline of the Atherosclerosis Prevention in Paediatric Lupus Erythematosus (APPLE) study were assayed to determine 25OHD, PTH and LL-37 levels. Pearson's correlations and Î§ 2 tests were used to evaluate the relationships between 25OHD, PTH, LL-37, inflammation, disease activity and infection using baseline values collected as part of the APPLE study. Results 201/221 APPLE participants had serum available for analysis. Serum 25OHD was inversely associated with serum PTH, but not LL-37. Serum PTH was not associated with high sensitivity C-reactive protein, carotid intima media thickness or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, but was negatively associated with lipoprotein(a) levels. Despite no association with serum 25OHD, LL-37 was negatively associated with total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol and positively associated with age. There was no significant difference in mean LL-37 levels in participants with reported infection as an adverse event during the 3-year APPLE study. Conclusions Despite links to vitamin D levels in other studies, LL-37 levels were not associated with baseline serum 25OHD concentrations in paediatric patients with pSLE. Despite the lack of correlation with 25OHD, LL-37 levels in this study were associated with cholesterol levels. Some subjects with pSLE have significantly elevated levels of LL-37 of unknown significance. These exploratory results addressing the role of LL-37 levels in pSLE appear worthy of future study.
Gupta, V; Tangpricha, V; Yow, E; McComsey, GA; Schanberg, L; Robinson, AB
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