Structure, chromosome location, and expression of the human gamma-actin gene: differential evolution, location, and expression of the cytoskeletal beta- and gamma-actin genes.
The accumulation of the cytoskeletal beta- and gamma-actin mRNAs was determined in a variety of mouse tissues and organs. The beta-isoform is always expressed in excess of the gamma-isoform. However, the molar ratio of beta- to gamma-actin mRNA varies from 1.7 in kidney and testis to 12 in sarcomeric muscle to 114 in liver. We conclude that, whereas the cytoskeletal beta- and gamma-actins are truly coexpressed, their mRNA levels are subject to differential regulation between different cell types. The human gamma-actin gene has been cloned and sequenced, and its chromosome location has been determined. The gene is located on human chromosome 17, unlike beta-actin which is on chromosome 7. Thus, if these genes are also unlinked in the mouse, the coexpression of the beta- and gamma-actin genes in rodent tissues cannot be determined by gene linkage. Comparison of the human beta- and gamma-actin genes reveals that noncoding sequences in the 5'-flanking region and in intron III have been conserved since the duplication that gave rise to these two genes. In contrast, there are sequences in intron III and the 3'-untranslated region which are not present in the beta-actin gene but are conserved between the human gamma-actin and the Xenopus borealis type 1 actin genes. Such conserved noncoding sequences may contribute to the coexpression of beta- and gamma-actin or to the unique regulation and function of the gamma-actin gene. Finally, we demonstrate that the human gamma-actin gene is expressed after introduction into mouse L cells and C2 myoblasts and that, upon fusion of C2 cells to form myotubes, the human gamma-actin gene is appropriately regulated.
Erba, HP; Eddy, R; Shows, T; Kedes, L; Gunning, P
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