Telephone-based goal management training for adults with mild traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Approximately 1 million individuals experience a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cost the United States nearly $17 billion each year. Many trauma survivors with mild TBI have debilitating and long-term physical, emotional, and cognitive impairments that are unrecognized at trauma centers. Early intervention studies are needed to address these impairments, especially cognitive deficits in executive functioning. Goal management training (GMT) is a structured cognitive rehabilitation program that has been found to improve executive functioning in patients with moderate to severe TBI. The current study adapted the GMT program for telephone delivery in order to improve the accessibility of rehabilitation services in a patient population with multiple barriers to care and significant yet unrecognized cognitive impairment. The primary objective of this study is to examine the efficacy of telephone-based GMT for improving executive functioning, functional status, and psychological health in trauma survivors with mild TBI. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a three-group randomized controlled trial being conducted at a Level I trauma center. Ninety trauma survivors with mild TBI and cognitive deficits in executive functioning will be randomized to receive telephone-based GMT, telephone-based education, or usual care. GMT and education programs will be delivered by a physical therapist. The first in-person session is 1 h and the remaining six telephone sessions are 30 min. A battery of well-established cognitive tests will be conducted and validated questionnaires will be collected that measure executive functioning, functional status, and depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 7 months following hospital discharge. DISCUSSION: This study supports a telephone-delivery approach to rehabilitation services in order to broaden the availability of evidence-based cognitive strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov on 10 October 2012, registration number: NCT01714531.
Archer, KR; Coronado, RA; Haislip, LR; Abraham, CM; Vanston, SW; Lazaro, AE; Jackson, JC; Ely, EW; Guillamondegui, OD; Obremskey, WT
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