Structures of the CCR5 N terminus and of a tyrosine-sulfated antibody with HIV-1 gp120 and CD4.
The CCR5 co-receptor binds to the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein and facilitates HIV-1 entry into cells. Its N terminus is tyrosine-sulfated, as are many antibodies that react with the co-receptor binding site on gp120. We applied nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallographic techniques to analyze the structure of the CCR5 N terminus and that of the tyrosine-sulfated antibody 412d in complex with gp120 and CD4. The conformations of tyrosine-sulfated regions of CCR5 (alpha-helix) and 412d (extended loop) are surprisingly different. Nonetheless, a critical sulfotyrosine on CCR5 and on 412d induces similar structural rearrangements in gp120. These results now provide a framework for understanding HIV-1 interactions with the CCR5 N terminus during viral entry and define a conserved site on gp120, whose recognition of sulfotyrosine engenders posttranslational mimicry by the immune system.
Huang, C-C; Lam, SN; Acharya, P; Tang, M; Xiang, S-H; Hussan, SS-U; Stanfield, RL; Robinson, J; Sodroski, J; Wilson, IA; Wyatt, R; Bewley, CA; Kwong, PD
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