Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in patients with germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2.
Women with mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at tremendously increased lifetime risk of both breast and BRCA-associated gynecologic (ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal) cancer. Because of limitations in the efficacy of available screening and chemopreventive approaches for women with a mutation in one of these genes, surgical risk reduction, particularly risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), has become an important component of the management options in hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome. This article will review the rationale and efficacy of RRSO for prevention of breast and BRCA-associated gynecologic cancer. Surgical technique and methods of pathologic evaluation will be presented. Controversies regarding uterine preservation and post-RRSO hormone replacement therapy will be addressed. Considerations that may impact the appropriate timing of the procedure will be reviewed, and the potential role of RRSO in BRCA-negative hereditary breast cancer families will also be discussed.
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