Gastrointestinal microbiota alteration induced by Mucor circinelloides in a murine model.
Mucor circinelloides is a pathogenic fungus and etiologic agent of mucormycosis. In 2013, cases of gastrointestinal illness after yogurt consumption were reported to the US FDA, and the producer found that its products were contaminated with Mucor. A previous study found that the Mucor strain isolated from an open contaminated yogurt exhibited virulence in a murine systemic infection model and showed that this strain is capable of surviving passage through the gastrointestinal tract of mice. In this study, we isolated another Mucor strain from an unopened yogurt that is closely related but distinct from the first Mucor strain and subsequently examined if Mucor alters the gut microbiota in a murine host model. DNA extracted from a ten-day course of stool samples was used to analyze the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tracts of mice exposed via ingestion of Mucor spores. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS1 sequences obtained were used to identify taxa of each kingdom. Linear regressions revealed that there are changes in bacterial and fungal abundance in the gastrointestinal tracts of mice which ingested Mucor. Furthermore, we found an increased abundance of the bacterial genus Bacteroides and a decreased abundance of the bacteria Akkermansia muciniphila in the gastrointestinal tracts of exposed mice. Measurements of abundances show shifts in relative levels of multiple bacterial and fungal taxa between mouse groups. These findings suggest that exposure of the gastrointestinal tract to Mucor can alter the microbiota and, more importantly, illustrate an interaction between the intestinal mycobiota and bacteriota. In addition, Mucor was able to induce increased permeability in epithelial cell monolayers in vitro, which might be indicative of unstable intestinal barriers. Understanding how the gut microbiota is shaped is important to understand the basis of potential methods of treatment for gastrointestinal illness. How the gut microbiota changes in response to exposure, even by pathogens not considered to be causative agents of food-borne illness, may be important to how commercial food producers prevent and respond to contamination of products aimed at the public. This study provides evidence that the fungal microbiota, though understudied, may play an important role in diseases of the human gut.
Mueller, KD; Zhang, H; Serrano, CR; Billmyre, RB; Huh, EY; Wiemann, P; Keller, NP; Wang, Y; Heitman, J; Lee, SC
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