Outcomes of Acute Hematogenous Periprosthetic Joint Infection in Total Ankle Arthroplasty Treated With Irrigation, Debridement, and Polyethylene Exchange.
BACKGROUND: Acute hematogenous periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is defined in the literature as infection diagnosed and treated within 2 to 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. In total hip and knee arthroplasty, irrigation and debridement (I&D) and polyethylene exchange with component retention has been studied extensively. However, there is minimal literature evaluating this treatment method for PJI in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the clinical and patient-reported outcomes and survivorship of TAA acute hematogenous PJIs treated with I&D and polyethylene exchange. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective chart review of prospectively collected data in patients with TAA PJI who subsequently underwent I&D and polyethylene exchange with retention of metal components was conducted. The primary outcome was failure rate of I&D and polyethylene exchange, where failure was defined as subsequent removal of all components and 2-stage revision or arthrodesis. Patient-reported outcomes collected before primary arthroplasty, after primary arthroplasty, and after polyethylene exchange were also analyzed. RESULTS: We identified 14 patients with acute hematogenous PJI who underwent I&D and polyethylene exchange with retention of metal components. The mean time from primary TAA to symptoms was 43 months (range 1-147 months). The average time from onset of symptoms to I&D and polyethylene exchange was 11.4 ± 5.6 days. The mean follow-up after this surgery was 2.8 ± 1.5 years. The long-term failure rate was 54%. The most common bacteria isolated in patients who failed was methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The most common bacteria isolated in patients who retained their implants was methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Visual analog scale (VAS), Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scale showed significant improvement when compared to preoperative scores in patients who retained their implants both after primary and after I&D and polyethylene exchange. CONCLUSIONS: I&D and polyethylene exchange with retention of metal components has a long-term survivorship comparable to those reported in the total knee and total hip arthroplasty literature. Patient-reported outcomes after I&D and polyethylene exchange were comparable to those collected after primary arthroplasty in those patients who ultimately retained their implants. Two variables in this cohort that were associated with I&D and polyethylene exchange failure include time the patient was symptomatic prior to I&D as well as organism isolated on culture. With a failure rate of 54%, the authors recommend thorough evaluation on a case-by-case basis prior to indicating a patient for single-stage I&D with polyethylene exchange. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, case series.
Lachman, JR; Ramos, JA; DeOrio, JK; Easley, ME; Nunley, JA; Adams, SB
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