Does the bonobo have a (chimpanzee-like) theory of mind?

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Book Section

© Oxford University Press 2017. Theory of mind-the ability to reason about the thoughts and emotions of others-is central to what makes us human. Chimpanzees too appear to understand some psychological states. While less is known about bonobos, several lines of evidence suggest that the social-cognitive abilities of the two sister taxa may differ in key respects. This chapter outlines a framework to guide future research on bonobo social cognition based on the predictions of two potentially complementary hypotheses. The self-domestication hypothesis suggests that selection against aggression and for prosociality in bonobos may have impacted the ontogeny of their social-cognitive skills relative to chimpanzees. The empathizing-systemizing hypothesis links degree of prenatal brain masculinization, a potential result of self-domestication, to adult cognition. Specifically, relative feminization may yield more flexible theory of mind skills in bonobos than chimpanzees. Finally, directions for future study, including development of new paradigms that maximize ecological validity for bonobos, are discussed.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Krupenye, C; MacLean, EL; Hare, B

Published Date

  • January 1, 2018

Book Title

  • Bonobos: Unique in Mind, Brain, and Behavior

Start / End Page

  • 81 - 94

International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN-13)

  • 9780198728511

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0006

Citation Source

  • Scopus