Effects of leaf area index and density on ultrafine particle deposition onto forest canopies: A LES study
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd A framework to describe transport and deposition of ultrafine particles (UFP) within forests using large eddy simulation (LES) is presented. Comparison with measurements collected within and above a Scots pine stand in Southern Finland are used to explore the plausibility of the simulations. The numerical model is then employed to quantify the effects of canopy morphology (leaf area index and leaf area density), turbulence intensity, and particle size on the partitioning between upper canopy and subcanopy deposition and the overall deposition velocities. Results show a complex interplay between canopy morphology and turbulence, which is reflected on the particle flux profiles within the canopy. However, mean particle concentration profiles, total deposition, and deposition velocities at the canopy top are insensitive to the leaf area density profile but show dependence mostly on leaf area index, turbulence levels, and particle size. Finally, with the goal of understanding the sensitivity of the deposition velocity to all these parameters, an analytical model is developed that shows good agreement with LES results (within ±20%) for all conditions simulated here.
Lin, X; Chamecki, M; Katul, G; Yu, X
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