Consumption of Coffee but Not of Other Caffeine-Containing Beverages Reduces the Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease in the Singapore Chinese Health Study.
Background:Cross-sectional studies suggest that coffee drinking is associated with better renal function. However, to our knowledge, no prospective study has examined its relation with the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Objective:We examined the relations between coffee, tea, soda, and total caffeine consumption and the risk of ESRD among middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore. Methods:We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 men and women aged 45-74 y at recruitment from 1993 to 1998. Baseline information on the consumption of caffeinated coffee and other caffeinated beverages (tea and sodas), habitual diet, medical history, and lifestyle factors was obtained via in-person interviews. The standard serving size of 1 cup was assigned as 237 mL in the questionnaire. Incident ESRD cases were identified via linkage with the nationwide registry. We used multivariable Cox regression models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of ESRD risk associated with the consumption of caffeinated beverages, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results:After a mean follow-up of 16.8 y, 1143 cohort subjects developed ESRD. Compared with those who drank coffee less than daily, the HR (95% CI) was 0.91 (0.79, 1.05) for those who drank 1 cup of coffee/d and 0.82 (0.71, 0.96) for those who drank ≥2 cups/d (P-trend = 0.012). When stratified by sex, this association was observed in men but not in women. Compared with those who drank less than daily, the HR (95% CI) for drinking ≥2 cups/d was 0.71 (0.57, 0.87) among men and 0.97 (0.78, 1.19) among women (P-interaction = 0.03). Conversely, intakes of tea, soda, or total caffeine were not associated with the risk of ESRD in multivariable models. Conclusion:The consumption of ≥2 cups of coffee/d may reduce the risk of ESRD in the general population, especially among men. This study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03356340.
Lew, Q-LJ; Jafar, TH; Jin, A; Yuan, J-M; Koh, W-P
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