Emission Factors of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds from Environmental Bacteria and Fungi.
Knowledge of the factors controlling the diverse chemical emissions of common environmental bacteria and fungi is crucial because they are important signal molecules for these microbes that also could influence humans. We show here not only a high diversity of mVOCs but that their abundance can differ greatly in different environmental contexts. Microbial volatiles exhibit dynamic changes across microbial growth phases, resulting in variance of composition and emission rate of species-specific and generic mVOCs. In vitro experiments documented emissions of a wide range of mVOCs (>400 different chemicals) at high time resolution from diverse microbial species grown under different controlled conditions on nutrient media, or residential structural materials ( N = 54, Ncontrol = 23). Emissions of mVOCs varied not only between microbial taxa at a given condition but also as a function of life stage and substrate type. We quantify emission factors for total and specific mVOCs normalized for respiration rates to account for the microbial activity during their stationary phase. Our VOC measurements of different microbial taxa indicate that a variety of factors beyond temperature and water activity, such as substrate type, microbial symbiosis, growth phase, and lifecycle affect the magnitude and composition of mVOC emission.
Misztal, PK; Lymperopoulou, DS; Adams, RI; Scott, RA; Lindow, SE; Bruns, T; Taylor, JW; Uehling, J; Bonito, G; Vilgalys, R; Goldstein, AH
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