Factor Structure for Chronic Stress Before and During Pregnancy by Racial/Ethnic Group.
This study aimed to explore race/ethnicity-specific dimensionalities of chronic stress before and during pregnancy for non-Hispanic (N-H) White, N-H Black, Hispanic, and Asian women in the United States. This study analyzed the data among 6,850 women from the New York City and Washington State Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (2004-2007) linked with birth certificates. Separate exploratory factor analysis was conducted by race/ethnicity using a maximum-likelihood extraction method with 26 chronic stress items before and during pregnancy. Correlations and internal consistency reliabilities among items and latent factors determined race/ethnicity-specific factor structures of chronic stress. Chronic stress was race/ethnicity-distinctive and multidimensional with low correlations among the factors ( r = .07-.28, p < .05). Despite financial hardship, perceived isolation, and physical violence underlying chronic stress among the racial/ethnic groups, intergroup variations existed under each group's cultural or sociopolitical contexts. This study could help develop targeted strategies to intervene with women's chronic stressors before childbirth.
Kim, S; Im, E-O; Liu, J; Ulrich, C
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