Factor Structure for Chronic Stress Before and During Pregnancy by Racial/Ethnic Group.


Journal Article

This study aimed to explore race/ethnicity-specific dimensionalities of chronic stress before and during pregnancy for non-Hispanic (N-H) White, N-H Black, Hispanic, and Asian women in the United States. This study analyzed the data among 6,850 women from the New York City and Washington State Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (2004-2007) linked with birth certificates. Separate exploratory factor analysis was conducted by race/ethnicity using a maximum-likelihood extraction method with 26 chronic stress items before and during pregnancy. Correlations and internal consistency reliabilities among items and latent factors determined race/ethnicity-specific factor structures of chronic stress. Chronic stress was race/ethnicity-distinctive and multidimensional with low correlations among the factors ( r = .07-.28, p < .05). Despite financial hardship, perceived isolation, and physical violence underlying chronic stress among the racial/ethnic groups, intergroup variations existed under each group's cultural or sociopolitical contexts. This study could help develop targeted strategies to intervene with women's chronic stressors before childbirth.

Full Text

Cited Authors

  • Kim, S; Im, E-O; Liu, J; Ulrich, C

Published Date

  • May 2019

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 41 / 5

Start / End Page

  • 704 - 727

PubMed ID

  • 30019628

Pubmed Central ID

  • 30019628

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1552-8456

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0193-9459

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1177/0193945918788852


  • eng