Albuminuria and Allograft Failure, Cardiovascular Disease Events, and All-Cause Death in Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Cohort Analysis of the FAVORIT Trial.
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is common and overall graft survival is suboptimal among kidney transplant recipients. Although albuminuria is a known risk factor for adverse outcomes among persons with native chronic kidney disease, the relationship of albuminuria with cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in transplant recipients is uncertain. STUDY DESIGN: Post hoc longitudinal cohort analysis of the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcomes Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) Trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Stable kidney transplant recipients with elevated homocysteine levels from 30 sites in the United States, Canada, and Brazil. PREDICTOR: Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) at randomization. OUTCOMES: Allograft failure, CVD, and all-cause death. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Multivariable Cox models adjusted for age; sex; race; randomized treatment allocation; country; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; history of CVD, diabetes, and hypertension; smoking; cholesterol; body mass index; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); donor type; transplant vintage; medications; and immunosuppression. RESULTS: Among 3,511 participants with complete data, median ACR was 24 (Q1-Q3, 9-98) mg/g, mean eGFR was 49±18 (standard deviation) mL/min/1.73m2, mean age was 52±9 years, and median graft vintage was 4.1 (Q1-Q3, 1.7-7.4) years. There were 1,017 (29%) with ACR < 10mg/g, 912 (26%) with ACR of 10 to 29mg/g, 1,134 (32%) with ACR of 30 to 299mg/g, and 448 (13%) with ACR ≥ 300mg/g. During approximately 4 years, 282 allograft failure events, 497 CVD events, and 407 deaths occurred. Event rates were higher at both lower eGFRs and higher ACR. ACR of 30 to 299 and ≥300mg/g relative to ACR < 10mg/g were independently associated with graft failure (HRs of 3.40 [95% CI, 2.19-5.30] and 9.96 [95% CI, 6.35-15.62], respectively), CVD events (HRs of 1.25 [95% CI, 0.96-1.61] and 1.55 [95% CI, 1.13-2.11], respectively), and all-cause death (HRs of 1.65 [95% CI, 1.23-2.21] and 2.07 [95% CI, 1.46-2.94], respectively). LIMITATIONS: No data for rejection; single ACR assessment. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population of stable kidney transplant recipients, elevated baseline ACR is independently associated with allograft failure, CVD, and death. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether reducing albuminuria improves these outcomes.
Weiner, DE; Park, M; Tighiouart, H; Joseph, AA; Carpenter, MA; Goyal, N; House, AA; Hsu, C-Y; Ix, JH; Jacques, PF; Kew, CE; Kim, SJ; Kusek, JW; Pesavento, TE; Pfeffer, MA; Smith, SR; Weir, MR; Levey, AS; Bostom, AG
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