Intra-seasonal antibody repertoire analysis of a subject immunized with an MF59®-adjuvanted pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine.
During the height of the 2009 H1N1 swine-derived influenza pandemic, a clinical trial was conducted in which seven subjects were immunized using a monovalent, MF59®-adjuvanted vaccine, developed from an egg-passaged candidate vaccine virus (CVV), A/California/07/2009 X-181. Whole blood was collected prior to immunization and at 8, 22, and 202 days post-vaccination, and subjects' serological responses were evaluated. Here, we reconstruct and examine the longitudinal, influenza-specific circulating B cell repertoire of one subject in that study. Genotypic analysis of 390 total subject-derived antibodies (Abs) revealed a total of 29 germline genes in use among immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions (IgHV), with the majority of those sequences isolated representing memory recall responses and two major lineages dominating the early response. In vitro phenotyping showed a diverse set of binding epitopes on the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), many of which are considered subdominant. Strong correlations were found between IgHV germline usage among non-related lineages and both binding epitope and neutralization breadth. Results here highlight the potential for Ab responses to be misdirected to egg-adaptive artifacts on CVVs while simultaneously stressing the ability to mount potent, broadly neutralizing responses to mostly novel antigens via recall of subdominant memory responses, as well as the need for evaluating alternative endpoint assays and anti-NA responses following clinical trials.
Ferdman, J; Palladino, G; Liao, H-X; Moody, MA; Kepler, TB; Del Giudice, G; Dormitzer, PR; Harrison, SC; Settembre, EC; Suphaphiphat, P
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