Azacitidine With Or Without Entinostat For The Treatment Of Therapy-Related Myeloid Neoplasm: Further Results Of The E1905 North American Leukemia Intergroup Study
Therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (tMN) includes t-myelodysplasia (tMDS) and t-acute myeloid leukemia (tAML) and are serious late effects of the treatment of cancer. Prognosis of tMN is poor, related to the increased frequency of adverse cytogenetics and other clinical features which predict poor response to conventional treatment. Over the last years, azacitidine (AZA) has become the standard of treatment for high risk MDS (Silverman, JCO 2002; Fenaux, Lancet Oncol 2009) and has shown efficacy in AML. AZA represents an interesting option for patients with tMN considering its safety profile and its efficacy in poor prognosis subgroups of apparently de novo MDS patients including those with monosomy 7. Most prospective trials of AZA have excluded patients with tMN. Most tMN data are retrospective or registry studies (Bally, Leuk Res 2013). This abstract presents the results of 47 t-MN patients prospectively enrolled as a specific cohort in the E1905 study.
E1905 study is a randomized phase 2 study from the North American Leukemia Intergroup (NCT00313586, Prebet , ASH 2010) testing 10 days of AZA (50mg/m2/d s.c.) vs. 10 days of AZA + the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat (4 mg/m2/d PO days 3 and day 10). 6 cycles of treatment were planned; responding patients could receive up to 24 cycles. MDS, CMML, and AML with myelodysplasia-related changes were included. Patients with tMN were subsequently accrued as a separate cohort after amendment of the protocol. Response was assessed using IWG 2000 criteria (Cheson et al, Blood 2000); the primary endpoint of the overall trial was achievement of a normal hemogram in 25% of treated patients in either treatment arm.
A total of 47 patients were included. Median age was 70 years (39y-83y), 45% male, and 94% of patients had ECOG PS 0-1. 29 patients could be subclassified as t-MDS and 18 as t-AML. At inclusion, median peripheral blood counts were: neutrophils 1.0 G/l, Platelets 35 G/L, Hemoglobin 9.2 g/l, peripheral blood blasts 0%, marrow blasts 14.0%. 68% of patients were RBC transfusion dependent and 40% platelet transfusion dependent. As expected, the cytogenetic evaluation showed a high frequency of unfavorable risk cytogenetics (74%) as compared to normal or intermediate risk cytogenetics (26%). Baseline characteristics were not statistically different between the 2 arms. 24 patients were treated with AZA monotherapy and 23 with AZA+entinostat. The median number of administered cycles was 4 and was significantly higher in patients treated with AZA monotherapy (6 cycles vs.3 cycles, p=0.008). 8 patients in the combination arm and 1 patient in the AZA monotherapy arm died of infection or hemorrhage before cycle 3. In an intent to treat analysis, overall response rates (CR, PR, or trilineage Hematologic improvement) were 11/24 (46%) in AZA monotherapy (95% CI 26 – 67%) and 4/23 (17%) in the combination arm (95% CI 5 – 39%, p=0.06 comparing the two arms). Median overall survival in the two arms were 12.8 months and 5.7 months (p=0.008).
In this group of very high risk patients with therapy-related myeloid neoplasms, the use of the novel 50 * 10 schedule of azacitidine monotherapy appears effective, with response rates comparable to those for patients with de novo MDS/AML treated on the same protocol (74 pts, 40% with unfavorable cytogenetics, ORR=32%, median OS=18 months). Because there are no prospective data examining the approved dose schedule of AZA (75 mg/m2/day * 7 days), it is not clear if this surprisingly high response rate derives from the current extended schedule of lower dose AZA, or would be true with standard dose AZA as well. This high response may enable many of these patients to proceed to allogeneic stem cell transplant. Entinostat combined with azacitidine at the dose and schedule applied in E1905 does not appear to be effective and tolerable as compared to azacitidine alone.
Prebet: CELGENE: Honoraria. Off Label Use: Use of azacitidine in acute myeloid leukemia. Gore:CELGENE: Equity Ownership, Research Funding.
Prebet, T; Sun, Z; Ketterling, R; Greenberg, PL; Zeidan, AM; Litzow, MR; Gabrilove, JL; Erba, HP; Paietta, E; Czader, M; Gore, SD; Tallman, MS
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