The role of sodium intake in nephrolithiasis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and future directions.
The prevalence of nephrolithiasis has doubled over the last decade and the incidence in females now approaches that of males. Since dietary salt is lithogenic, a purported mechanism common to both genders is excess dietary sodium intake vis-a-vis processed and fast foods. Nephrolithiasis has far-reaching societal implications such as impact on gross domestic product due to days lost from work (stone disease commonly affects working adults), population-wide carcinogenic diagnostic and interventional radiation exposure (kidney stone disease is typically imaged with computed tomographic imaging and treated under imaging guidance and follow-up), and rising healthcare costs (surgical treatment will be indicated for a number of these patients). Therefore, primary prevention of kidney stone disease via dietary intervention is a low-cost public health initiative with massive societal implications. This primer aims to establish baseline epidemiologic and pathophysiologic principles to guide clinicians in sodium-directed primary prevention of kidney stone disease.
Afsar, B; Kiremit, MC; Sag, AA; Tarim, K; Acar, O; Esen, T; Solak, Y; Covic, A; Kanbay, M
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