Differential impairment of adherens-junction expression/phosphorylation after cardioplegia in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients.
Previous animal studies have demonstrated that endothelial adherens-junction molecules are significantly altered in animal myocardium and microvasculature after cardioplegia and cardiopulmonary bypass (CP/CPB). We investigated the effects of diabetes on expression/phosphorylation/localization of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, β- and γ-catenin in human atrial myocardium and coronary vasculature in the setting of CP/CPB.Right atrial tissue was harvested pre- and post-CP/CPB from non-diabetic (ND) [haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): 5.4 ± 0.15], controlled (CDM) (HbA1c: 6.3 ± 0.14) and uncontrolled diabetic (UDM) (HbA1c: 9.9 ± 0.72) patients (n = 10/group). Expression/phosphorylation/localization of VE-cadherin, β- and γ-catenin were assessed by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. In vitro atrial microvascular reactivity was assessed by videomicroscopy in response to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP).There were no significant differences in VE-cadherin protein expression between pre- and post-CP/CPB among groups. There were significant decreases in VE-cadherin densities in vessels of the UDM group versus the ND group at baseline or post-CP/CPB, respectively (P < 0.05). The level of basal phosphorylated VE-cadherin tends to be higher in the UDM compared with the ND group (P < 0.05). CP/CPB induced more phosphorylation of VE-cadherin in all groups (versus pre-CP/CPB; P < 0.05, respectively) and this effect was more pronounced in the UDM group (P < 0.05 versus ND or CDM). The protein levels of both catenins (β and γ) were lower in post-CP/CPB in UDM than ND patients (P < 0.05). There were significant decreases in vasodilatory response to endothelial-dependent vasodilator ADP after CP/CPB (P < 0.05). This alteration was more pronounced in UDM patients (P < 0.05).These data suggest that poorly controlled diabetes down-regulates endothelial adherens-junction protein activation/expression/localization in the setting of CP/CPB. The increased tyrosine phosphorylation and deterioration of VE-cadherin indicate the damage of the cell-cell endothelial junctions in the diabetic vessels undergoing CP/CPB and cardiac surgery. These alterations may lead to increase in vascular permeability and endothelial dysfunction and affect outcomes in diabetic patients after cardiac surgery.
Feng, J; Liu, Y; Sabe, AA; Sadek, AA; Singh, AK; Sodha, NR; Sellke, FW
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