The host response as a tool for infectious disease diagnosis and management.
INTRODUCTION: A century of advances in infectious disease diagnosis and treatment changed the face of medicine. However, challenges continue to develop including multi-drug resistance, globalization that increases pandemic risks, and high mortality from severe infections. These challenges can be mitigated through improved diagnostics, and over the past decade, there has been a particular focus on the host response. Since this article was originally published in 2015, there have been significant developments in the field of host response diagnostics, warranting this updated review. Areas Covered: This review begins by discussing developments in single biomarkers and pauci-analyte biomarker panels. It then delves into 'omics, an area where there has been truly exciting progress. Specifically, progress has been made in sepsis diagnosis and prognosis; differentiating viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogen classes; pre-symptomatic diagnosis; and understanding disease-specific diagnostic challenges in tuberculosis, Lyme disease, and Ebola. Expert Commentary: As 'omics have become faster, more precise, and less expensive, the door has been opened for academic, industry, and government efforts to develop host-based infectious disease classifiers. While there are still obstacles to overcome, the chasm separating these scientific advances from the patient's bedside is shrinking.
Lydon, EC; Ko, ER; Tsalik, EL
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