Vulnerability, Income Growth and Climate Change
Cross-country data on energy consumption, per capita gross domestic product (GDP), and a social vulnerability index are used to measure changes in vulnerability associated with changes in per capita GDP and per capita energy consumption. Energy consumption, through its non-linear effect on per capita income, reduces a country's overall vulnerability by a greater amount at moderate incomes than at low or high incomes. An implication is that policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions in developing countries are unlikely to significantly affect vulnerability to the risks arising from climate change, especially at very low incomes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
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