The Inflammatory Signal Adaptor RIPK3: Functions Beyond Necroptosis.
Receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) is an essential serine/threonine kinase for necroptosis, a type of regulated necrosis. A variety of stimuli can cause RIPK3 activation through phosphorylation. Activated RIPK3 in turn phosphorylates and activates the downstream necroptosis executioner mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). Necroptosis is a highly inflammatory type of cell death because of the release of intracellular immunogenic contents from disrupted plasma membrane. Indeed, RIPK3-deficient mice exhibited reduced inflammation in many inflammatory disease models. These results have been interpreted as evidence that necroptosis is a key driver for RIPK3-induced inflammation. Interestingly, recent studies show that RIPK3 also regulates NF-κB, inflammasome activation, and kinase-independent apoptosis. These studies also reveal that these nonnecroptotic functions contribute significantly to disease pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of necroptotic and nonnecroptotic functions of RIPK3 and discuss how these effects contribute to RIPK3-mediated inflammation.
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