Giving and Receiving Effective Feedback: A Review Article and How-To Guide.
CONTEXT.—: Feedback is the delivery of information based on direct observation that is meant to improve performance. Learning is at the heart of feedback, and as such, feedback is a required competency in pathology resident education. In the laboratory setting, the ability of laboratory professionals in all practice settings and experience levels to give and receive feedback is crucial to workflow and ultimately patient care. OBJECTIVE.—: To summarize the importance of feedback, strategies for optimizing feedback exchange, and overcoming barriers to giving and receiving feedback. DATA SOURCES.—: Peer-reviewed original articles, review articles, medical education literature, and published books on feedback and communication were reviewed to explore ideal methods of giving and receiving feedback and to identify common barriers to feedback exchange. CONCLUSIONS.—: Medical education literature emphasizes techniques for giving feedback and describes barriers often encountered to feedback exchange in medical practice. Effective feedback requires that the giver, receiver, and environment be carefully considered. Likewise, each of these factors can impose barriers to feedback exchange. Various methods for giving feedback have been described. All feedback should address a specific behavior, be nonevaluative in nature, and be followed by confirmation of understanding and an action plan. Few articles describe the importance of receiving feedback. Receiving feedback can be difficult, but it is enhanced by learning to listen and making conscious decisions regarding implementing the messages heard. Giving and receiving feedback become easier with practice.
Jug, R; Jiang, XS; Bean, SM
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