Regulation of Division and Differentiation of Plant Stem Cells.
A major challenge in developmental biology is unraveling the precise regulation of plant stem cell maintenance and the transition to a fully differentiated cell. In this review, we highlight major themes coordinating the acquisition of cell identity and subsequent differentiation in plants. Plant cells are immobile and establish position-dependent cell lineages that rely heavily on external cues. Central players are the hormones auxin and cytokinin, which balance cell division and differentiation during organogenesis. Transcription factors and miRNAs, many of which are mobile in plants, establish gene regulatory networks that communicate cell position and fate. Small peptide signaling also provides positional cues as new cell types emerge from stem cell division and progress through differentiation. These pathways recruit similar players for patterning different organs, emphasizing the modular nature of gene regulatory networks. Finally, we speculate on the outstanding questions in the field and discuss how they may be addressed by emerging technologies.
Pierre-Jerome, E; Drapek, C; Benfey, PN
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