Spectral-Domain OCT Measurements in Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
TOPIC: OCT is a noninvasive tool to measure specific retinal layers in the eye. The relationship of retinal spectral-domain (SD) OCT measurements with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains unclear. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the SD OCT measurements in AD and MCI. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Current methods of diagnosing early AD are expensive and invasive. Retinal measurements of SD OCT, which are noninvasive, technically simple, and inexpensive, are potential biomarkers of AD. METHODS: We conducted a literature search in PubMed and Excerpta Medica Database to identify studies published before December 31, 2017, that assessed the associations between AD, MCI, and measurements of SD OCT: ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), macular volume, and choroidal thickness, in addition to retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular thickness. We used a random-effects model to examine these relationships. We also conducted meta-regression and assessed heterogeneity, publication bias, and study quality. RESULTS: We identified 30 eligible studies, involving 1257 AD patients, 305 MCI patients, and 1460 controls, all of which were cross-sectional studies. In terms of the macular structure, AD patients showed significant differences in GC-IPL thickness (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.80 to -0.11; I2 = 71%), GCC thickness (SMD, -0.84; 95% CI, -1.10 to -0.57; I2 = 0%), macular volume (SMD, -0.58; 95% CI, -1.03 to -0.14; I2 = 80%), and macular thickness of all inner and outer sectors (SMD range, -0.52 to -0.74; all P < 0.001) when compared with controls. Peripapillary RNFL thickness (SMD, -0.67; 95% CI, -0.95 to -0.38; I2 = 89%) and choroidal thickness (SMD range, -0.88 to -1.03; all P < 0.001) also were thinner in AD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirmed the associations between retinal measurements of SD OCT and AD, highlighting the potential usefulness of SD OCT measurements as biomarkers of AD.
Chan, VTT; Sun, Z; Tang, S; Chen, LJ; Wong, A; Tham, CC; Wong, TY; Chen, C; Ikram, MK; Whitson, HE; Lad, EM; Mok, VCT; Cheung, CY
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