Dietary patterns and health-related quality of life in bladder cancer survivors.
PURPOSE: A nutritious diet has been associated with better health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a variety of cancer survivors. However, little is known about dietary habits and its association with HRQOL in bladder cancer survivors. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to describe dietary intake patterns and its relationship to HRQOL in a large cohort of bladder cancer survivors. METHODS: Bladder cancer survivors within our institutional database were mailed surveys to assess dietary intake patterns utilizing the Diet History Questionnaire II and assessing HRQOL utilizing the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bladder Cancer. Diet quality was assessed via Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores based on subjects' Diet History Questionnaire II results. Univariate and multivariate analyses of HRQOL based on diet quality were used to evaluate whether diet quality was associated with HRQOL. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifty-nine patients (48%) returned questionnaires. Mean age was 74 years, 81% were male and 28% underwent radical cystectomy. Diet quality and quantity in our cohort was similar to the general older U.S. population and did not differ significantly between those managed conservatively or long-term following cystectomy. Our cohort had low intake of whole grains and fat-soluble vitamins, particularly vitamin D. Diet quality was significantly associated with HRQOL in the univariate analysis but lost statistical significance in our multivariate analysis. Elixhauser Comorbidity Index was significantly associated with HRQOL in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a similar diet quality of bladder cancer survivors to the older general U.S. population that, on average, "needs improvement." Dietary intake is particularly lacking in whole grain and vitamin D intake. Future studies are warranted to determine the impact on long-term outcome, but bladder cancer survivors should be counseled on the importance and benefits of adherence to dietary guidelines, including its potential contribution toward better HRQOL.
Gopalakrishna, A; Chang, A; Longo, TA; Fantony, JJ; Harrison, MR; Wischmeyer, PE; Inman, BA
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