Current Approaches in the Management of Hepatic Adenomas.
INTRODUCTION:Hepatic adenomas (HAs) are a benign and relatively rare type of liver neoplasms. We review the diagnosis, evaluation, and potential therapeutic management options for patients with HA. METHODS:A comprehensive review of the English literature was performed utilizing MEDLINE/PubMed and Web of Science databases with end of search date the 30th April of 2018. In PubMed, the terms "hepatocellular," "hepatic," "liver," and "adenoma," "adenomatosis" were searched in the title and/or abstract. RESULTS:Recent advances in molecular classification of HA have determined distinct subtypes with specific clinical, pathological, and imaging characteristics. In general, cessation of exogenous hormonal administration or weight loss may lead to HA regression. Surgical resection, either open or laparoscopic, should be considered in patients with symptoms and risk factors for hemorrhage or malignant transformation. These risk factors include tumor diameter greater than 5 cm, β-catenin activated subtype, and/or male gender. The management of acute hemorrhage should primarily aim at achieving hemodynamic stability via angioembolization followed by elective resection, whereas malignant transformation is treated according to oncologic resection principles. Although pregnancy is one of the known risk factors for tumor growth and associated complications, the presence of an HA per se should not be considered a contradiction to pregnancy. CONCLUSION:Future genomic-based multicenter studies are required to provide a strong basis for formulating an evidence-based risk-adapted model that guides individualized management strategies for patients with HA.
Tsilimigras, DI; Rahnemai-Azar, AA; Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, I; Gavriatopoulou, M; Moris, D; Spartalis, E; Cloyd, JM; Weber, SM; Pawlik, TM
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