A moldable sustained release bupivacaine formulation for tailored treatment of postoperative dental pain.
A moldable and biodegradable dental material was designed for customized placement and sustained delivery of bupivacaine (BP) within an extraction cavity. Microparticles comprising poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) containing BP were generated via solvent-evaporation and combined with absorbable hemostat Gelfoam®. Kinetics of drug release were evaluated by in vitro dialysis assays, showing higher release within the first 24 hours, with subsequent tapering of release kinetics. Formulations of Gelfoam® and BP-PLGA microparticles (GelBP), with three targeted dosing profiles (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg/day), were evaluated alongside acute subcutaneous BP injections (2 mg/kg) to determine analgesic efficacy in a rat model of tooth extraction pain. Molar extraction resulted in mechanical and thermal cold hyperalgesia in male and female rats. GelBP outperformed acute BP in blocking post-surgical dental pain, with the 0.25 mg/kg GelBP dose preventing hypersensitivity to mechanical (p < 0.01) and thermal cold stimuli (p = 0.05). Molar extraction also resulted in decreased food consumption and weight. Males receiving acute BP and 0.25 mg/kg GelBP maintained normal food consumption (p < 0.002) and weight (p < 0.0001) throughout 7 days. Females, receiving 0.25 mg/kg GelBP maintained weight on days 5-7 (p < 0.04). Customized, sustained release formulation of anesthetic within a tooth extraction cavity holds potential to eliminate post-operative dental pain over several days.
Shepherd, SD; O'Buckley, SC; Harrington, JM; Haines, LG; Rothrock, GD; Johnson, LM; Nackley, AG
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