Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics of Postfenestration Optic Nerve Sheath Pseudomeningoceles.
PURPOSE: The clinical significance of postoperative pseudomeningocele formation following optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) has not been fully characterized. A literature review identifies 9 previously published cases the authors believe demonstrate pseudomeningocele formation and approximately 19 other similar findings that were either transient or less defined blebs. This study was undertaken to more clearly define the clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features associated with this entity. METHODS: Sixteen-year, single-center, retrospective chart review of all ONSF cases performed by 2 surgeons. Clinical data, intracranial pressure, radiographic imaging, and histopathology of clinically detected pseudomeningoceles after ONSF were reviewed. RESULTS: Eighty-six eyes in 57 patients underwent ONSF (28 unilateral, 12 bilateral sequential, 17 bilateral simultaneous). Forty-nine of 57 patients had elevated intracranial pressure preoperatively (41 idiopathic intracranial hypertension, 4 venous thrombosis, 2 meningitis, 1 arteriovenous malformation, and 1 sarcoid). In 32 patients undergoing postoperative imaging, 4 eyes (4.7%) in 4 patients developed well-defined pseudomeningoceles, of which 3 were symptomatic and 2 required surgical revision. Each pseudomeningocele developed in the setting of elevated preoperative intracranial pressure (350, 360, 430, 500 mm H20). Magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography revealed sharply demarcated fluid-filled sacs adjacent to the optic nerve. The contents of these sacs were hypointense on T1-weighted imaging, hyperintense on T2-weighting, variably enhanced with contrast, and hypointense on fluid attenuated inversion recovery, and were thus consistent with cerebrospinal fluid. Histopathologic analysis of one of these outpouchings demonstrated an acellular, fibrocollagenized lining consistent with pseudomeningocele. Three eyes in 3 additional patients had less well-defined findings on imaging interpreted as bleb-like or cyst-like change. CONCLUSIONS: Pseudomeningoceles following ONSF may be asymptomatic or may cause symptomatic orbital mass effect and rarely visual loss, amendable to surgical excision. Post-ONSF pseudomeningoceles are identified on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to occur at the locations of fenestration sites and contain cerebrospinal fluid communicating with the subdural space that may act as a "filtration" bleb in some cases. Imaging findings may represent a spectrum spanning intraorbital cerebrospinal fluid leakage, partial walling off of bleb, or fully developed cysts. Resection of optic nerve pseudomeningoceles is considered in symptomatic cysts or eyes with papilledema that fails to improve.
Rafailov, L; Rubinstein, D; Wladis, EJ; Mirani, N; Frohman, LP; Langer, PD; Turbin, RE
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