Association of Gout With Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes Among Patients With Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease.
Background Epidemiological studies demonstrating a relationship between gout and cardiovascular disease are older and predate modern cardiovascular preventive therapy. We assessed the contemporary association between gout and cardiovascular disease in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. Methods and Results Data were from the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Diseases, which followed up patients undergoing cardiac catheterization with obstructive coronary artery disease at Duke University Medical Center (1998-2013). We assessed the relationship between gout diagnosis at baseline or during follow-up and the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, adjusting for differences in baseline clinical factors. Secondary end points included cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality. New, postbaseline, gout diagnosis was included as a time-dependent covariate. Among 17 201 patients, 1406 (8.2%) had baseline gout and a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors, but high rates of optimal medical therapy. Over a median follow-up of 6.4 years, gout diagnosis at time of catheterization was not associated with the primary outcome (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.05 [0.96-1.15]; P=0.31) or cardiovascular death (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.10 [0.99-1.22]; P=0.08), but was associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.13 [1.05-1.23]; P=0.002). After including new, postbaseline, gout diagnosis, the instantaneous risk of the primary outcome was significantly associated with prior gout diagnosis (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.15 [1.07-1.25]; P=0.0004). Conclusions A clinical history of gout is associated with worse outcomes in a contemporary population of patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. This increased risk exists despite high levels of optimal baseline cardiovascular disease medical therapy, suggesting that residual cardiovascular risk is not addressed by standard medical therapy.
Pagidipati, NJ; Clare, RM; Keenan, RT; Chiswell, K; Roe, MT; Hess, CN
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