Consensus approach for the management of severe combined immune deficiency caused by adenosine deaminase deficiency.
Inherited defects in adenosine deaminase (ADA) cause a subtype of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) known as severe combined immune deficiency caused by adenosine deaminase defects (ADA-SCID). Most affected infants can receive a diagnosis while still asymptomatic by using an SCID newborn screening test, allowing early initiation of therapy. We review the evidence currently available and propose a consensus management strategy. In addition to treatment of the immune deficiency seen in patients with ADA-SCID, patients should be followed for specific noninfectious respiratory, neurological, and biochemical complications associated with ADA deficiency. All patients should initially receive enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), followed by definitive treatment with either of 2 equal first-line options. If an HLA-matched sibling donor or HLA-matched family donor is available, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) should be pursued. The excellent safety and efficacy observed in more than 100 patients with ADA-SCID who received gammaretrovirus- or lentivirus-mediated autologous hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT) since 2000 now positions HSC-GT as an equal alternative. If HLA-matched sibling donor/HLA-matched family donor HSCT or HSC-GT are not available or have failed, ERT can be continued or reinstituted, and HSCT with alternative donors should be considered. The outcomes of novel HSCT, ERT, and HSC-GT strategies should be evaluated prospectively in "real-life" conditions to further inform these management guidelines.
Kohn, DB; Hershfield, MS; Puck, JM; Aiuti, A; Blincoe, A; Gaspar, HB; Notarangelo, LD; Grunebaum, E
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