Chronic norovirus infection in primary immune deficiency disorders: an international case series.
OBJECTIVE: Predictive factors associated with clinical outcomes of chronic norovirus infection (CNI) in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) are lacking. METHOD: We sought to characterize CNI using a multi-institutional cohort of patients with PIDD and CNI using the Clinical Immunology Society's CIS-PIDD Listserv e-mail group. RESULTS: Thirty-four subjects (21 males and 13 females) were reported from centers across North America, Europe, and Asia. All subjects were receiving high doses (median IgG dose: 1200 mg/kg/month) of supplemental immunoglobulin therapy. Fifty-three percent had a complete absence of B cells (median B-cell count 0; range 0-139 cells/μL). Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID) subjects manifested a unique phenotype with B-cell lymphopenia, non O+ blood type, and villous atrophy (logistic regression model, P = 0.01). Five subjects died, all of whom had no evidence of villous atrophy. CONCLUSION: While Norovirus (NoV) is thought to replicate in B cells, in this PIDD cohort of CNI, B-cell lymphopenia was common, indicating that the presence of B lymphocytes is not essential for CNI.
Rolfes, MC; Sriaroon, P; Dávila Saldaña, BJ; Dvorak, CC; Chapdelaine, H; Ferdman, RM; Chen, K; Jolles, S; Patel, NC; Kim, YJ; Tarrant, TK; Martelius, T; Seppanen, M; Joshi, AY
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