Novel Angular Measures of Cervical Deformity Account for Upper Cervical Compensation and Sagittal Alignment.


Journal Article

STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective review of a prospective multicenter database. OBJECTIVE: This study introduces 2 new cervical alignment measures accounting for both cervical deformity (CD) and upper cervical compensation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Current descriptions of CD like the C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (cSVA) do not account for compensatory mechanisms such as C0-C2 lordosis and pelvic tilt, which makes surgical planning difficult. The craniocervical angle (CCA) combines the slope of McGregor's line and the inclination from C7 to the hard palate. The C2-pelvic tilt (CPT) combines C2 tilt and pelvic tilt. Like the T1 pelvic angle, CPT is less affected by lower extremity and pelvic compensation. METHODS: Novel and existing CD measures were correlated in 781 patients from a thoracolumbar deformity (TLD) database and 61 patients from a prospective CD database. CD patients were subanalyzed by region of deformity driver: cervical or cervico-thoracic junction. TLD patients were substratified according to whether or not they had CD as well, where CD was defined as cSVA>4 cm or T1 slope minus cervical lordosis mismatch (TS-CL) >20. RESULTS: TLD cohort: mean cSVA was 31.7±17.8 mm. Subanalysis of TLD patients with CD versus no-CD demonstrated significant differences in CCA (56.2 vs. 60.6, P<0.001) and CPT (32.6 vs. 19.3, P<0.001). CCA and CPT correlated with cSVA (r=-0.488/r=0.418, P<0.001) and C0-C2 lordosis (r=-0.630/r=0.289,P<0.001). CD cohort: mean cSVA was 47.3±32.2 mm. CCA and CPT correlated with cSVA (r=-0.811/r=0.657, P<0.001) and C0-C2 lordosis (r=-0.656/r=0.610, P<0.001). CD cohort subanalysis indicated that CT patients were significantly more deformed by cSVA (71.3 vs 24.0 mm, P<0.001), CCA (47.1 vs 59.1 degrees, P<0.001), and CPT (63.3 vs 43.8 degrees, P=0.002). Using linear regression analysis, cSVA of 4 cm corresponded to CCA of 53.2 degrees (r=0.5) and CPT of 48.5 degrees (r=0.4). CONCLUSIONS: CCA and CPT account for both cervical sagittal alignment and upper cervical compensation and can be utilized in assessment of cervical alignment.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Protopsaltis, TS; Lafage, R; Vira, S; Sciubba, D; Soroceanu, A; Hamilton, K; Smith, J; Passias, PG; Mundis, G; Hart, R; Schwab, F; Klineberg, E; Shaffrey, C; Lafage, V; Ames, C; International Spine Study Group,

Published Date

  • August 2017

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 30 / 7

Start / End Page

  • E959 - E967

PubMed ID

  • 28650879

Pubmed Central ID

  • 28650879

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2380-0194

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000554


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States