A comparative analysis of the prevalence and characteristics of cervical malalignment in adults presenting with thoracolumbar spine deformity based on variations in treatment approach over 2 years.
PURPOSE: Characteristics specific to cervical deformity (CD) concomitant with adult thoracolumbar deformity (TLD) remains uncertain, particularly regarding treatment. This study identifies cervical malalignment prevalence following surgical and conservative TLD treatment through 2 years. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a prospective, multicenter adult spinal deformity (ASD) database. CD was defined in operative and non-operative ASD patients according to the following criteria: T1 Slope minus Cervical Lordosis (T1S-CL) ≥20°, C2-C7 Cervical Sagittal Vertical Axis (cSVA) ≥40 mm, C2-C7 kyphosis >10°. Differences in rates, demographics, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores for Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire (SRS-22r), and radiographic variables were assessed between treatment groups (Op vs. Non-Op) and follow-up periods (baseline, 1-year, 2-year). RESULTS: Three hundred and nineteen (200 Op, 199 Non-Op) ASD patients were analyzed. Op patients' CD rates at 1 and 2 years were 78.9, and 63.0 %, respectively. Non-Op CD rates were 21.1 and 37.0 % at 1 and 2 years, respectively. T1S-CL mismatch and cSVA malalignment characterized Op CD at 1 and 2 years (p < 0.05). Op and Non-Op CD groups had similar cervical/global alignment at 1 year (p > 0.05 for all), but at 2 years, Op CD patients had worse thoracic kyphosis (TK), T1S-CL, CL, cSVA, C2-T3 SVA, and global SVA compared to Non-Ops (p < 0.05). Op CD patients had worse ODI, and SRS Activity at 1 and 2 years post-operative (p < 0.05), but had greater 2-year SRS Satisfaction scores (p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: In the first study to compare cervical malalignment at extended follow-up between ASD treatments, CD rates rose overall through 2 years. TLD surgery, resulting in higher CD rates characterized by T1S-CL and cSVA malalignment, produced poorer HRQoL. This information can aid in treatment method decision-making when cervical deformity is present concomitant with TLD.
Jalai, CM; Passias, PG; Lafage, V; Smith, JS; Lafage, R; Poorman, GW; Diebo, B; Liabaud, B; Neuman, BJ; Scheer, JK; Shaffrey, CI; Bess, S; Schwab, F; Ames, CP; International Spine Study Group (ISSG),
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